September 30, 2022 (Unaudited)


Shares/Description  Value 
 389,320   AllianceBernstein National Municipal Income Fund, Inc.  $4,033,355 
 749,241   BlackRock California Municipal Income Trust   7,702,197 
 13,779   BlackRock Municipal 2030 Target Term Trust   282,745 
 180,969   BlackRock Municipal Income Fund, Inc.   1,965,323 
 244,154   BlackRock Municipal Income Trust   2,326,788 
 33,394   BlackRock Municipal Income Trust II   333,940 
 53,441   BlackRock MuniHoldings California Quality Fund, Inc.   573,956 
 771,579   BlackRock MuniHoldings Fund, Inc.   8,680,265 
 42,934   BlackRock MuniVest Fund II, Inc.   433,204 
 662,375   BlackRock MuniYield Fund, Inc.   6,584,008 
 18,207   BlackRock MuniYield New York Quality Fund, Inc.   171,692 
 151,077   BlackRock MuniYield Quality Fund III, Inc.   1,575,733 
 42,373   BNY Mellon Strategic Municipal Bond Fund, Inc.   239,831 
 127,802   Delaware Investments National Municipal Income Fund   1,391,764 
 55,220   DWS Strategic Municipal Income Trust   436,790 
 67,555   Eaton Vance California Municipal Bond Fund   574,893 
 87,833   Eaton Vance California Municipal Income Trust   843,197 
 1,468,178   Eaton Vance Municipal Bond Fund   14,211,962 
 240,344   Eaton Vance New York Municipal Bond Fund   2,030,907 
 57,808   Invesco Advantage Municipal Income Trust II   469,401 
 690,434   Invesco Municipal Trust   6,310,567 
 846,480   Invesco Trust for Investment Grade Municipals   7,923,053 
 41,772   iShares National Muni Bond ETF   4,284,972 
 685,315   MFS High Yield Municipal Trust   2,062,797 
 267,847   MFS Investment Grade Municipal Trust   1,802,610 
 848,231   MFS Municipal Income Trust   4,105,438 
 65,624   Neuberger Berman California Municipal Fund, Inc.   689,052 
 130,254   Neuberger Berman New York Municipal Fund, Inc.   1,204,850 
 278,581   Nuveen AMT-Free Municipal Value Fund   3,657,769 
 2,055,315   Nuveen AMT-Free Quality Municipal Income Fund   21,786,339 
 129,923   Nuveen California Municipal Value Fund   1,072,514 
 871,273   Nuveen California Quality Municipal Income Fund   9,557,865 
 232,196   Nuveen Dividend Advantage Municipal Fund 3   2,640,069 
 116,469   Nuveen Dynamic Municipal Opportunities Fund   1,197,301 
 23,876   Nuveen Georgia Quality Municipal Income Fund   228,016 
 55,133   Nuveen Municipal Value Fund, Inc.   466,425 
 1,292,658   Nuveen New York AMT-Free Quality Municipal Income Fund   12,693,903 
 326,071   Nuveen New York Quality Municipal Income Fund   3,413,963 
 251,618   Nuveen Ohio Quality Municipal Income Fund   2,956,512 
 105,184   Nuveen Pennsylvania Quality Municipal Income Fund   1,153,868 
 1,571,831   Nuveen Quality Municipal Income Fund   17,290,140 
 112,616   Pioneer Municipal High Income Advantage Fund, Inc.   850,251 
 171,972   Pioneer Municipal High Income Opportunities Fund, Inc.   1,743,796 
 200,333   Western Asset Intermediate Municipal Fund   1,472,448 
 204,256   Western Asset Managed Municipals Fund, Inc.   1,981,283 
 146,581   Western Asset Municipal High Income Fund, Inc.   908,802 
 123,584   Western Asset Municipal Partners Fund, Inc.   1,384,141 
(Cost $222,423,727)   169,700,695 



Principal Amount/Description  Rate   Maturity   Value 
Consumer Discretionary (0.47%) 
$2,000,000   Howard University   4.76%   10/01/51   $1,684,497 
 TOTAL U.S. CORPORATE BONDS               
(Cost $2,000,000)             1,684,497 


Principal Amount/Description   Rate    Maturity    Value 
Arizona (2.29%)                   
$8,000,000   City of Mesa AZ Utility System Revenue, Revenue Bonds(a)   5.00%   07/01/46   $8,296,709 
California (13.09%)               
 2,500,000   California Statewide Communities Development Authority, Revenue Bonds   5.50%   12/01/54    2,514,239 
 14,000,000   City of Los Angeles Department of Airports, Revenue Bonds(a)   5.00%   05/15/51    14,014,249 
 10,000,000   City of Sacramento CA Water Revenue, Revenue Bonds   5.25%   09/01/47    10,626,247 
 8,000,000   Regents of the University of California Medical Center Pooled Revenue, Revenue Bonds(a)   5.00%   05/15/47    8,317,127 
 4,500,000   Sacramento City Unified School District, General Obligation Unlimited Bonds(a)   5.50%   08/01/47    4,893,571 
 6,900,000   San Francisco City & County Airport Comm-San Francisco International Airport, Revenue Bonds(a)   5.00%   05/01/46    6,901,041 
Colorado (2.41%)               
 10,000,000   City & County of Denver Co. Airport System Revenue, Revenue Bonds(a)   4.00%   12/01/43    8,700,269 
District Of Columbia (2.68%)               
 9,660,000   Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority Aviation Revenue, Revenue Bonds(a)   5.00%   10/01/43    9,668,747 
Florida (11.18%)               
 12,500,000   County of Broward FL Convention Center Hotel Revenue, Revenue Bonds(a)   5.50%   01/01/55    13,441,794 
 9,000,000   County of Broward FL Tourist Development Tax Revenue, Revenue Bonds(a)   4.00%   09/01/47    8,006,292 
 7,500,000   School District of Broward County, General Obligation Unlimited Bonds(a)   5.00%   07/01/51    7,880,504 
 12,750,000   South Broward Hospital District, Revenue Bonds(a)   4.00%   05/01/48    11,055,337 



Principal Amount/Description  Rate   Maturity   Value 
Guam (0.68%)            
$2,445,000   Guam Government Waterworks Authority, Revenue Bonds   5.00%   01/01/50   $2,451,600 
Hawaii (4.16%)               
 15,000,000   State of Hawaii Airports System Revenue, Revenue Bonds(a)   5.00%   07/01/48    14,956,793 
Illinois (16.52%)               
 15,000,000   Chicago O'Hare International Airport, Revenue Bonds   5.25%   01/01/45    15,417,103 
 15,000,000   Chicago Park District, General Obligation Limited Bonds   5.00%   01/01/44    15,356,033 
 5,000,000   City of Joliet IL, General Obligation Unlimited Bonds   5.50%   12/15/44    5,392,386 
 10,000,000   Metropolitan Pier & Exposition Authority, Revenue Bonds(b)   0.00%   06/15/44    3,241,856 
 13,600,000   State of Illinois, General Obligation Unlimited Bonds   5.50%   05/01/39    13,852,169 
 1,000,000   Village of Bourbonnais IL, General Obligation Unlimited Bonds   5.25%   12/01/46    1,051,574 
 5,000,000   Will County School District No 114 Manhattan, General Obligation Unlimited Bonds   5.50%   09/01/52    5,266,201 
Indiana (1.36%)               
 4,250,000   Greater Clark Building Corp., Revenue Bonds(a)   6.00%   01/15/42    4,895,198 
Iowa (2.24%)               
 8,000,000   PEFA, Inc., Revenue Bonds   5.00%   09/01/49    8,124,891 
Massachusetts (5.30%)               
 7,000,000   Massachusetts Development Finance Agency, Revenue Bonds(a)   5.00%   03/01/44    7,011,267 
 12,045,000   Massachusetts Port Authority, Revenue Bonds(a)   5.00%   07/01/43    12,124,807 
Michigan (5.22%)               
 2,240,000   Belding Area Schools, General Obligation Unlimited Bonds   5.25%   05/01/48    2,365,960 
 13,950,000   Michigan Finance Authority, Revenue Bonds   4.00%   11/01/55    12,243,455 
 4,000,000   Western School District, General Obligation Unlimited Bonds   5.25%   05/01/49    4,238,106 
Nevada (1.77%)               
 7,000,000   County of Clark NV, Revenue Bonds(a)   4.00%   07/01/40    6,390,353 
New Jersey (1.53%)               
 5,565,000   New Jersey Transportation Trust Fund Authority, Revenue Bonds(a)   5.00%   06/15/50    5,509,898 




Principal Amount/Description  Rate   Maturity   Value 
New York (9.77%)            
$12,000,000   City of New York NY, General Obligation Unlimited Bonds(a)   5.50%   05/01/44   $13,100,762 
 10,000,000   Port Authority of New York & New Jersey, Revenue Bonds(a)   5.50%   08/01/52    10,483,585 
 11,050,000   Triborough Bridge & Tunnel Authority, Revenue Bonds(a)   5.25%   05/15/52    11,643,049 
North Carolina (1.43%)               
 5,000,000   Greater Asheville Regional Airport Authority, Revenue Bonds(a)   5.50%   07/01/52    5,146,299 
Ohio (2.00%)               
 7,000,000   Cleveland-Cuyahoga County Port Authority, Revenue Bonds(a)   5.50%   08/01/47    7,231,668 
Oregon (2.90%)               
 10,000,000   Multnomah-Clackamas Counties Centennial School District No 28JT, General Obligation Unlimited Bonds(a)   5.00%   06/15/50    10,476,410 
Pennsylvania (3.96%)               
 14,000,000   Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission, Revenue Bonds(a)   5.00%   12/01/50    14,274,939 
Puerto Rico (1.11%)               
 1,204,114   GDB Debt Recovery Authority of Puerto Rico, Revenue Bonds   7.50%   08/20/40    1,059,620 
 3,500,000   Puerto Rico Sales Tax Financing Corp. Sales Tax Revenue, Series Restructured Series A-2, Revenue Bonds   4.78%   07/01/58    2,952,560 
Rhode Island (2.21%)               
 7,500,000   Rhode Island Health and Educational Building Corp., Revenue Bonds   5.50%   05/15/52    7,969,118 
Texas (2.18%)               
 8,975,000   Greater Texoma Utility Authority, Revenue Bonds   4.00%   10/01/47    7,848,640 
Utah (2.50%)               
 8,575,000   Intermountain Power Agency, Revenue Bonds(a)   5.00%   07/01/43    9,038,515 
Virgin Islands (0.99%)               
 705,000   Matching Fund Special Purpose Securitization Corp., Revenue Bonds   5.00%   10/01/30    721,122 
 705,000   Matching Fund Special Purpose Securitization Corp., Revenue Bonds   5.00%   10/01/32    718,664 



Principal Amount/Description  Rate   Maturity   Value 
Virgin Islands (continued)            
$2,120,000   Matching Fund Special Purpose Securitization Corp., Revenue Bonds   5.00%   10/01/39   $2,127,602 
Washington (5.99%)               
 10,000,000   County of Grant WA, General Obligation Limited Bonds(a)   5.25%   12/01/57    10,594,706 
 10,000,000   Port of Seattle WA, Revenue Bonds(a)   5.00%   08/01/46    10,053,092 
 1,065,000   Washington State Convention Center Public Facilities District, Revenue Bonds   4.00%   07/01/34    942,298 
Wyoming (0.17%)               
 685,000   University of Wyoming, Revenue Bonds   4.00%   06/01/42    622,899 
(Cost $401,924,034)             381,211,324 


Shares/Description  Value 
 36,325,834   BlackRock Liquidity Funds MuniCash (7 Day Yield 1.88%)  $36,322,202 
(Cost $36,326,208)    36,322,202 
TOTAL INVESTMENTS (163.20%)     
(Cost $662,673,969)  $588,918,718 
Floating Rate Note Obligations (-64.89%)(c)   (234,135,000)
Other Assets In Excess Of Liabilities (1.69%)   6,046,849 
NET ASSETS (100.00%)  $360,830,567 



(a) All or portion of the principal amount transferred to a Tender Option Bond (“TOB”) Issuer in exchange for TOB Residuals and cash.

(b) Issued with a zero coupon. Income is recognized through the accretion of discount.

(c) Face value of Floating Rate Notes issued in TOB transactions.


Futures Contracts Sold:



Description  Contracts (Short)   Expiration
   Value and Unrealized Appreciation 
10-Yr U.S. Treasury Note Futures   (1,775)  December 2022  $198,910,937   $9,475,762 
US Long Bond Future   (675)  December 2022   85,324,219    6,770,879 
           $284,235,156   $16,246,641 



RiverNorth Flexible Municipal Income Fund II, Inc.


Notes to Quarterly Schedule of Investments September 30, 2022 (Unaudited)





RiverNorth Flexible Municipal Income Fund II, Inc. (the “Fund”) was organized as a Maryland corporation on June 10, 2020, pursuant to its Articles of Incorporation, which were amended and restated on January 13, 2021 (“Articles of Incorporation”). The Fund had no operations until February 24, 2021 (commencement of operations), other than those related to organizational matters and the registration of its shares under applicable securities laws.


The Fund is a diversified, closed-end management investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”). The Articles of Incorporation permit the Board of Directors (the “Board” or “Directors”) to authorize and issue fifty million shares of common stock with $0.0001 par value per share. The Fund is considered an investment company and therefore follows the Investment Company accounting and reporting guidance of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification Topic 946 Financial Services – Investment Companies.


The Fund will terminate on or before February 26, 2036; provided, that if the Board believes that under then-current market conditions it is in the best interests of the Fund to do so, the Fund may extend the Termination Date once for up to one year, and once for an additional six months. The Fund may be converted to an open-end investment company at any time if approved by the Board and the shareholders. Within twelve months prior to the termination date, the Fund may conduct a tender offer to purchase 100% of the then outstanding shares. Following the completion of the tender offer, the Fund must have at least $100 million of net assets. The Board may then eliminate the termination date and convert the Fund to a perpetual structure upon the affirmative vote of a majority of the Board.


The Fund’s investment adviser is RiverNorth Capital Management, LLC (the “Adviser”) and the Fund’s sub-adviser is MacKay Shields, LLC (the “Sub-adviser”). The Fund’s primary investment objective is to seek current income exempt from regular U.S. federal income taxes (but which may be includable in taxable income for purposes of the Federal alternative minimum tax). The Fund’s secondary investment objective is total return.





The following is a summary of significant accounting policies followed by the Fund. These policies are in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). The financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP, which requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts and disclosures in the financial statements during the reporting period. Management believes the estimates and security valuations are appropriate; however, actual results may differ from those estimates, and the security valuations reflected in the financial statements may differ from the value the Fund ultimately realizes upon sale of the securities. The financial statements have been prepared as of the close of the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) on September 30, 2022.


The Fund invests in closed end funds (“CEFs”), each of which has its own investment risks. Those risks can affect the value of the Fund's investments and therefore the value of the Fund's shares. To the extent that the Fund invests more of its assets in one CEF than in another, the Fund will have greater exposure to the risks of that CEF.


Security Valuation:  The Fund’s investments are generally valued at their fair value using market quotations. If a market value quotation is unavailable a security may be valued at its estimated fair value as described in Note 3.


Security Transactions and Investment Income:  The Fund follows industry practice and records securities transactions on the trade date basis. The specific identification method is used for determining gains or losses for financial statements and income tax purposes. Dividend income is recorded on the ex-dividend date, and interest income and expenses are recorded on an accrual basis. Discounts and premiums on securities purchased are amortized or accreted using the effective interest method over the life of the respective securities.





Fair value is defined as the price that the Fund might reasonably expect to receive upon selling an investment in a timely transaction to an independent buyer in the principal or most advantageous market of the investment. U.S. GAAP establishes a three-tier hierarchy to maximize the use of observable market data and minimize the use of unobservable inputs and to establish classification of fair value measurements for disclosure purposes.


Inputs refer broadly to the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, including assumptions about risk, for example, the risk inherent in a particular valuation technique used to measure fair value including using such a pricing model and/or the risk inherent in the inputs to the valuation technique. Inputs may be observable or unobservable. Observable inputs are inputs that reflect the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability developed based on market data obtained from sources independent of the reporting entity. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the reporting entity’s own assumptions about the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability developed based on the best information available in the circumstances.


RiverNorth Flexible Municipal Income Fund II, Inc.


Notes to Quarterly Schedule of Investments September 30, 2022 (Unaudited)


Various inputs are used in determining the value of the Fund’s investments. These inputs are summarized in the three broad levels listed below.


  Level 1 – Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical, unrestricted assets or liabilities that a Fund has the ability to access at the measurement date;


  Level 2 – Quoted prices which are not active, quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets or inputs other than quoted prices that are observable (either directly or indirectly) for substantially the full term of the asset or liability; and


  Level 3 – Significant unobservable prices or inputs (including the Fund’s own assumptions in determining the fair value of investments) where there is little or no market activity for the asset or liability at the measurement date.


The inputs used to measure fair value may fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy. In such cases, for disclosure purposes, the level in the fair value hierarchy within which the fair value measurement falls in its entirety is determined based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety.


Equity securities, including CEFs, are generally valued by using market quotations, but may be valued on the basis of prices furnished by a pricing service when the Adviser or the Sub-Adviser believes such prices more accurately reflect the fair market value of such securities. Securities that are traded on any stock exchange are generally valued by the pricing service at the last quoted sale price. Lacking a last sale price, an exchange-traded security is generally valued by the pricing service at its last bid price. Securities traded in the NASDAQ over-the-counter market are generally valued by the pricing service at the NASDAQ Official Closing Price. When using the market quotations or close prices provided by the pricing service and when the market is considered active, the security will be classified as a Level 1 security. Sometimes, an equity security owned by the Fund will be valued by the pricing service with factors other than market quotations or when the market is considered inactive. When this happens, the security will be classified as a Level 2 security. When market quotations are not readily available, when the Adviser or the Sub-Adviser determines that the market quotation or the price provided by the pricing service does not accurately reflect the current fair value, or when restricted or illiquid securities are being valued, such securities are valued as determined in good faith by the Adviser, Sub-Adviser, or valuation committee in conformity with guidelines adopted by and subject to review by the Board. These securities will be categorized as Level 3 securities.


Investments in mutual funds, including short term investments, are generally priced at the ending NAV provided by the service agent of the funds. These securities will be classified as Level 1 securities.


Fixed income securities, including municipal and corporate bonds, are normally valued at the mean between the closing bid and asked prices provided by independent pricing services. Prices obtained from independent pricing services typically use information provided by market makers or estimates of market values obtained from yield data relating to investments or securities with similar characteristics. These securities will be classified as Level 2 securities.


Futures contracts are normally valued at the settlement price or official closing price provided by independent pricing services.


In accordance with the Fund’s good faith pricing guidelines, the Adviser, Sub-Adviser, or valuation committee is required to consider all appropriate factors relevant to the value of securities for which it has determined other pricing sources are not available or reliable as described above. No single standard exists for determining fair value, because fair value depends upon the circumstances of each individual case. As a general principle, the current fair value of an issue of securities being valued by the Adviser, Sub-Adviser, or valuation committee would appear to be the amount which the owner might reasonably expect to receive for them upon their current sale. Methods which are in accordance with this principle may, for example, be based on (i) a multiple of earnings; (ii) discounted cash flow models; (iii) weighted average cost or weighted average price; (iv) a discount from market of a similar freely traded security (including a derivative security or a basket of securities traded on other markets, exchanges or among dealers); or (v) yield to maturity with respect to debt issues, or a combination of these and other methods. Good faith pricing is permitted if, in the Adviser’s, Sub-Adviser’s, or the valuation committee’s opinion, the validity of market quotations appears to be questionable based on factors such as evidence of a thin market in the security based on a small number of quotations, a significant event occurs after the close of a market but before the Fund’s NAV calculation that may affect a security’s value, or the Adviser or Sub-Adviser is aware of any other data that calls into question the reliability of market quotations.


Good faith pricing may also be used in instances when the bonds in which the Fund invests default or otherwise cease to have market quotations readily available.


RiverNorth Flexible Municipal Income Fund II, Inc.


Notes to Quarterly Schedule of Investments September 30, 2022 (Unaudited)


The following is a summary of the inputs used at September 30, 2022 in valuing the Fund’s assets and liabilities:


Investments in Securities at Value*  Level 1 -  Quoted Prices   Level 2 -  Other Significant Observable Inputs   Level 3 -  Significant Unobservable Inputs   Total 
Closed-End Funds  $169,700,695   $   $   $169,700,695 
U.S. Corporate Bonds       1,684,497        1,684,497 
Municipal Bonds       381,211,324        381,211,324 
Short-Term Investments   36,322,202            36,322,202 
Total  $206,022,897   $382,895,821   $   $588,918,718 
Other Financial Instruments**                    
Future Contracts  $16,246,641   $   $   $16,246,641 
Total  $16,246,641   $   $   $16,246,641 


* Refer to the Fund's Schedule of Investments for a listing of securities by type.
** Other financial instruments are derivative instruments reflected in the Schedule of Investments. Futures contracts are reported at their unrealized appreciation/depreciation.


The Fund did not have any securities that used significant unobservable inputs (Level 3) in determining fair value, and there were no transfers into or out of Level 3 during the year.


4. Derivative Financial Instruments



The following discloses the Fund’s use of derivative instruments. The Fund’s investment objective not only permits the Fund to purchase investment securities, but also allow the Fund to enter into various types of derivative contracts such as futures. In doing so, the Fund will employ strategies in differing combinations to permit it to increase, decrease, or change the level or types of exposure to market factors. Central to those strategies are features inherent to derivatives that make them more attractive for this purpose than equity or debt securities; they require little or no initial cash investment, they can focus exposure on only selected risk factors, and they may not require the ultimate receipt or delivery of the underlying security (or securities) to the contract. This may allow the Fund to pursue its objective more quickly and efficiently than if it were to make direct purchases or sales of securities capable of affecting a similar response to market factors.


Market Risk Factors: In pursuit of its investment objectives, the Fund may seek to use derivatives to increase or decrease its exposure to the following market risk factors:


Equity Risk: Equity risk relates to the change in value of equity securities as they relate to increases or decreases in the general market.


Interest Rate Risk: Interest rate risk relates to the risk that the municipal securities in the Fund’s portfolio will decline in value because of increases in market interest rates.


Risk of Investing in Derivatives

The Fund’s use of derivatives can result in losses due to unanticipated changes in the market risk factors and the overall market. Derivatives may have little or no initial cash investment relative to their market value exposure and therefore can produce significant gains or losses in excess of their cost. This use of embedded leverage allows the Fund to increase its market value exposure relative to its net assets and can substantially increase the volatility of the Fund’s performance.


Additional associated risks from investing in derivatives also exist and potentially could have significant effects on the valuation of the derivative and the Fund. Typically, the associated risks are not the risks that the Fund is attempting to increase or decrease exposure to, per its investment objective, but are the additional risks from investing in derivatives.


Examples of these associated risks are liquidity risk, which is the risk that the Fund will not be able to sell the derivative in the open market in a timely manner, and counterparty credit risk, which is the risk that the counterparty will not fulfill its obligation to the Fund.


RiverNorth Flexible Municipal Income Fund II, Inc.


Notes to Quarterly Schedule of Investments September 30, 2022 (Unaudited)




The Fund may invest in futures contracts in accordance with its investment objectives. The Fund does so for a variety of reasons including for cash management, hedging or non-hedging purposes in an attempt to achieve the Fund’s investment objective. A futures contract provides for the future sale by one party and purchase by another party of a specified quantity of the security or other financial instrument at a specified price and time. A futures contract on an index is an agreement pursuant to which two parties agree to take or make delivery of an amount of cash equal to the difference between the value of the index at the close of the last trading day of the contract and the price at which the index contract was originally written. Futures transactions may result in losses in excess of the amount invested in the futures contract. There can be no guarantee that there will be a correlation between price movements in the hedging vehicle and in the portfolio securities being hedged. An incorrect correlation could result in a loss on both the hedged securities in a fund and the hedging vehicle so that the portfolio return might have been greater had hedging not been attempted. There can be no assurance that a liquid market will exist at a time when a fund seeks to close out a futures contract or a futures option position. Lack of a liquid market for any reason may prevent a fund from liquidating an unfavorable position, and the fund would remain obligated to meet margin requirements until the position is closed. In addition, a fund could be exposed to risk if the counterparties to the contracts are unable to meet the terms of their contracts. With exchange-traded futures, there is minimal counterparty credit risk to the Fund since futures are exchange-traded and the exchange’s clearinghouse, as counterparty to all exchange-traded futures, guarantees the futures against default. The Fund is party to certain enforceable master netting arrangements, which provide for the right of offset under certain circumstances, such as the event of default.


When a purchase or sale of a futures contract is made by a fund, the fund is required to deposit with its custodian (or broker, if legally permitted) a specified amount of liquid assets (“initial margin”). The margin required for a futures contract is set by the exchange on which the contract is traded and may be modified during the term of the contract. The initial margin is in the nature of a performance bond or good faith deposit on the futures contract that is returned to the Fund upon termination of the contract, assuming all contractual obligations have been satisfied. These amounts are included in Deposit with broker for futures contracts on the Statement of Assets and Liabilities. Each day the Fund may pay or receive cash, called “variation margin,” equal to the daily change in value of the futures contract. Such payments or receipts are recorded for financial statement purposes as unrealized gains or losses by the Fund. Variation margin does not represent a borrowing or loan by the Fund but instead is a settlement between the Fund and the broker of the amount one would owe the other if the futures contract expired. When the contract is closed, the Fund records a realized gain or loss equal to the difference between the value of the contract at the time it was opened and the value at the time it was closed.